African-Americans can’t just pull themselves up by their bootstraps

Helping hand: Irish workers eat their lunch on a girder in New York in 1932. Catholic immigrants — such as those from Italy and Ireland — relied upon government spending to help them get a start in the United States

Helping hand: Irish workers eat their lunch on a girder in New York in 1932. Catholic immigrants — such as those from Italy and Ireland — relied upon government spending to help them get a start in the United States

Recently, the results of the American National Election Survey were released, showing troubling findings: Convictions about the perceived failures of particular racial groups were a more certain predictor of votes than income inequality or authoritarianism. Specifically, the ANES found that President Trump’s voters tended to agree more than past Republican voters with the notion that “Italians, Irish” and […]